TUBERCULOSIS, UNA ENFERMEDAD VIGENTE

Francisco Gonzalez

Dr. Francisco González Riquelme
Medicina Interna, Equipo Técnico Programa TBC, SSA
Docente Escuela de Medicina UV

La Tuberculosis nos acompaña desde los albores de la Humanidad. Desde la antigua Civilización Egipcia que sabemos que el famoso Bacilo de Koch causaba diversas infecciones en los pulmones como su forma más clásica, así como en otros órganos.

La enfermedad se paseó por todas las culturas clásicas. En la Grecia antigua Hipócrates, uno de los padres de la Medicina, la llamó Consunción por la baja de peso y el gran deterioro general que produce en los enfermos que la padecen.

La Europa de los 1700 y 1800 sufrió los embates de la llamada Peste Blanca; en estos siglos la Tuberculosis diezmó la población europea como una de las enfermedades más letales del mundo.

Sin embargo, aunque la humanidad sabía de esta enfermedad desde siempre, lo que no conocía era la causa y, por ende, no tenía ningún tratamiento, hasta el 24 de Marzo de 1882 que el científico Robert Koch descubre el bacilo de la tuberculosis.

Este bacilo es un tipo de bacteria atípica que sólo vive en el ser humano. No puede defenderse de la luz del sol. Crece y se reproduce muy lentamente, por lo que cuando infecta a una persona la enfermedad puede producirse de inmediato o demorar años en manifestarse. Su nombre científico es Mycobacterium tuberculosis, pero en honor a su descubridor suele llamarse Bacilo de Koch.

Pasó más de medio siglo entre que se descubrió el Bacilo hasta poder desarrollar antibióticos que pudieran destruirlo. Actualmente el tratamiento para la Tuberculosis es seguro y eficaz y además es absolutamente gratuito para cualquier persona que viva en Chile. Como la bacteria es de lento crecimiento, la duración del tratamiento es de al menos 6 meses. Este tratamiento se entrega en todos los Centros de Salud Familiar del país.

La única Tuberculosis que se puede contagiar es la que afecta los pulmones. Si un enfermo de Tuberculosis Pulmonar tose y elimina desgarro bota bacilos vivos que pueden infectar a otra persona. Los síntomas clásicos son TOS Y ELIMINACIÓN DE DESGARRO por más de 15 días. Cualquier persona, adulto o niño, que se mantenga con tos y expectoración por 15 días o más debe acercarse a su Centro de Salud más cercano para hacerse el examen de la Tuberculosis, el cual es gratuito. Este examen se llama BACILOSCOPÍA y consiste en visualizar con un microscopio al bacilo en una muestra de desgarro.

Hasta el año pasado en el Valle del Aconcagua hay alrededor de 25 casos de Tuberculosis cada año; de esos pacientes al menos 4 fallecen con esta enfermedad. Aunque como país estamos en camino de eliminar la Tuberculosis el objetivo aún no está logrado. La Tuberculosis existe, está vigente y presente en nuestra comunidad y es tarea de todos encontrarla a tiempo para que los aconcagüinos no continúen siendo infectados por el Bacilo y no hayan más fallecidos por esta causa. Si tiene tos y eliminación de desgarro por 15 días o más o sabe de alguien que está en esa situación, acuda a su centro de salud más cercano y exija su Baciloscopía gratuita.

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